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Scientists reveal how and why blood types evolved

A-positive, A-negative, B-positive, B-negative, O-negative, O-positive, AB-positive, and AB-negative are not just mere labels; they hold implications far beyond their hospital utility
A-positive, A-negative, B-positive, B-negative, O-negative, O-positive, AB-positive, and AB-negative are not just mere labels; they hold implications far beyond their hospital utility. (CREDIT: Creative Commons)

We see blood as a life-giving force, vital for survival. Yet, most are oblivious to the fact that every drop of this crimson fluid has tiny variations that divide humanity into distinct groups.


A-positive, A-negative, B-positive, B-negative, O-negative, O-positive, AB-positive, and AB-negative are not just mere labels; they hold implications far beyond their hospital utility.


 
 

Blood Types: Decoding the Basics


At its core, our blood type is determined by the presence or absence of specific proteins on our red blood cells, termed antigens. The ABO gene is the programmer. For instance, those with type AB blood produce both A and B antigens.


The ABO system is the best known way of classifying blood types
The ABO system is the best known way of classifying blood types. (CREDIT: Ekachai Lohacamonchai/EyeEm/Getty Images)

Conversely, type O produces none. Meanwhile, the 'positive' or 'negative' suffix depends on another protein — the Rhesus or Rh factor.


 
 

This isn't mere scientific jargon. Take the O-negative blood type, for instance. Labelled as the "universal donor," it's a lifeline in emergencies since it lacks antigens or proteins, meaning any body can accept it without adverse reactions.


Dr. Douglas Guggenheim, a prominent hematologist with Penn Medicine, points to an evolutionary puzzle. "Why did such blood diversities arise?" he ponders. Origin theories range from ancestral locations to infections that prompted protective blood mutations. "Your blood may not evolve with current threats, but it certainly tells tales of past encounters," Guggenheim explains.


 

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The Blood-Health Connection


Recent studies are proving that blood types impact our health more than previously believed, particularly in the realm of cardiovascular conditions. The American Heart Association reveals a startling correlation. Compared to type O, individuals with type A, B, or AB blood face heightened risks of heart attacks and heart failures.


Let's delve deeper. An expansive study found that those with A or B blood types have an 8% elevated risk of heart attacks and a 10% rise in heart failure chances. More alarming? The disparity in blood clotting rates.


 
 

Types A and B presented a 51% increased likelihood of deep vein thrombosis and a 47% surge in the chances of pulmonary embolism. Such clotting disorders, Guggenheim explains, are closely tied to heart failures.


While O-type individuals might have some cardiovascular advantages, they aren't exempt from challenges
While O-type individuals might have some cardiovascular advantages, they aren't exempt from challenges. (CREDIT: Creative Commons)

Why this disparity? The proteins in types A and B might cause "blockages" in veins and arteries, raising the risk of clotting and heart ailments. The blood-COVID-19 connection adds another dimension. Anecdotal evidence suggests type O individuals face lower severe COVID-19 risks, a theory backed by subsequent studies showing how the virus interacts differently with varying blood types.


 
 

Other Health Implications


While O-type individuals might have some cardiovascular advantages, they aren't exempt from challenges. They might experience more significant post-childbirth hemorrhaging, a vulnerability underscored by a postpartum blood loss study. Traumatic injuries might also be more challenging due to increased blood loss.


Heart health is shaped by numerous factors — from diet and exercise to environmental pollutants
Heart health is shaped by numerous factors — from diet and exercise to environmental pollutants. (CREDIT: Creative Commons)

Moreover, type AB individuals might want to be wary of cognitive impairments. This group may have more considerable struggles with memory, focus, and decision-making compared to type O counterparts.


 
 

Blood Type: Should It Dictate Your Lifestyle?


Blood types provide a fascinating health lens. Still, Dr. Guggenheim advises caution against overinterpreting their significance. Heart health is shaped by numerous factors — from diet and exercise to environmental pollutants.


However, Guggenheim envisions a future where medical advice is more tailored. As research progresses, we might discover that someone with type A blood and healthy cholesterol could benefit from daily aspirin, while a type O individual wouldn't.


For now, though, the message is clear: "A balanced, heart-healthy diet remains universally recommended, irrespective of ABO," says Guggenheim. "Don't presume type O blood grants immunity from health challenges."


 
 

In essence, blood types provide a fascinating avenue for further exploration in personalized medicine. By understanding these nuances, we can take proactive steps towards our well-being while anticipating what the future of healthcare might bring.






For more science news stories check out our New Discoveries section at The Brighter Side of News.


 

Note: Materials provided above by The Brighter Side of News. Content may be edited for style and length.


 
 

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